[外文游泳文献] 公开水域初学者攻略-Open Water Swimming For Beginners

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小臭贝 发表于 2011-6-28 21:40:12
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本帖最后由 小臭贝 于 2011-6-28 21:40 编辑

10186739.jpg Open Water Swimming For Beginners
Apr 19 2011
Open water swimming is a never ending adventure. Some of my favorite memories are from open water swimming: leaving from Catalina Island for the California mainland at 1AM on a windless moonlight night, watching the phosphorescence glow as my arm pulled through the water and fish dart below; open water swimming in tandem with my husband, Dave, silhouetted against the beautiful blue Caribbean water off the coast of St. Lucia. There is a freedom and challenge to open water swimming which just can't be experienced in the pool. Besides that, open water swimming is FUN!!
Other memories include the sense of fear before beginning a 42 kilometer swim in Newport Vermont, which heads north up Lake Memphremagog toward Canada and a foggy memory (due to mild hypothermia) of finishing in Calais, France after crossing the English Channel. There was also the exhilaration of conquering tough cold conditions or large waves and chop, swimming and finishing races despite mother natures' indifference to my plight.
I learned to swim in a lake where my family lived in northern Wisconsin. My siblings and I trained summer workouts in open water since the nearest pool was a thirty minute drive and our back yard was more convenient. Due to this immersion, it did not seem difficult to me when I competed in my first open water swimming race in Seal Beach, California, in my late twenties.
公开水域游泳是一个永无终点的冒险。我的一些甜蜜的回忆来自于公开水域
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-6-28 21:40:34
Open Water Swimming For Beginners - How To Begin
(公开水域初学者如何开始)
Swimming in open water is your goal, where to start? I will assume that you already know how to swim. If not, take some lessons, join a YMCA or a masters swimming team and learn the crawl or freestyle. There are a few things that you can do in the pool to prepare for swimming in open water; bilateral breathing, head lifting and stroke rate training.
•First of all, breathing on both sides, or bilateral breathing, is a must. Is this within your physical capabilities? Stand up and twist the upper half of your body to the right and then to the left. Then turn your head to the right and left. SCHEZAM!!!
在公开水域游泳是你的目标,但从哪儿开始着手?我将假设你已经知道怎样游泳了。如果不会,那么去上一些课,加入一个YMCA或专门的游泳队,并学会爬泳或自由泳。有不少为公开水域准备的事情你可以在泳池里做,如双侧呼吸,抬头和划水频率训练。首要的是,两边呼吸或称双侧换气,这是必须的。它在你的身体能力之内吗?站立并扭动你的身体上半部分先转向右边,然后转向左边。接着转动你头向右,然后向左。)

Learning to breathe on both sides is possible. Why is this necessary? Imagine or perform the following experiment. Find an open space about 400 yards long. Select a target and try to walk straight toward it EXCEPT close your eyes and turn your head, looking to the right every 2 steps. Sneak a look forward every 10 steps. Vision in the water will be even harder because your forward view may be restricted depending upon wave conditions, fog in your goggles or glare from the sun reflecting off of the water. This is also assuming strict concentration upon straight line swimming, a difficult task for your first open water swim.
学会双边换气是可能的。为什么它-双边换气是必须的?想象或实践一下随后的体验:找出一块开阔地,长约400码,选定一个目标并直线向它行进,除了闭上你的双眼和转头之外,每2步向右看下,盲行10步看一下前方,水下的视觉将会相当困难,因为你视力将受限于水浪的情况,你泳镜上的雾气或由照在水面反射的刺目的阳光。这还是假设你是集中精力专注于直线游进的基础上,你的首次公开水域游泳对你将是一个艰巨的任务)

Breathing on both sides accomplishes two main goals. It tends to "even out" your stroke so that you will naturally swim straighter. Ha, ha, you already KNOW how to swim straight, right? But that is in the pool. Think of the available cues, lane lines on the side and a black line on the bottom to guide your progress. Open water is much different. In addition to the lack of visual cues available in the pool, the water is colder, there might be some waves and the 'pool length' can be as long as a mile!
双侧呼吸达成两个目标,它倾向于“即使出于”你的划臂的原因以便你自然地游得更直,哈哈,你已经知道怎样直线游进,对吗?但那是在泳池。想象可能的球标,边上的水线和池底的黑线引导你的行动。公开水域很不相同,而且缺乏可能看得到的泳池浮标,水也更冷,有可能会有风浪,“泳池的长度”以英里计。

The second advantage to bilateral breathing is that it will allow you to see to the right and left. When swimming in the ocean, the usual course traverses down and back along the beach. With single side breathing, half of your race will have NO visible cues toward the shore. Watching the shoreline is extremely helpful for straight swimming in the ocean. Other advantages include being able to breath away from oncoming waves or fumes from boats and snubbing your trainer in escort swims if he/she makes you mad. 双侧呼吸的第二个优势是那样将允许向左也可以向右看。当在海洋中游泳时,通常航线遍历下来又游回海滩。由于单侧换气,你将有一半的赛程不能看见朝向海岸的浮标,盯住海岸线极其有助于你在海洋中直线游进。另外一个优势包括能够在换气时避开迎面而来的海浪或船上喷出来的烟雾。或冷落护送你游泳的教练,如果他/ 她让你疯狂的话。


•Another skill to practice in the pool is lifting your head to see forward while swimming. The easiest way is to lift your head forward just before taking a breath to the side. I use the forward motion to look and then breathe to the side. Breathing head forward is not suggested since it requires too much energy to lift the head high enough for a breath and will cause slower swimming. Swim head up freestyle in the pool and see how difficult it is compared with head down swimming.
另外一个要在泳池实践的技巧是在游泳时抬头向前看。最容易的办法是正要向一侧换气之前抬头。我使用向前的动作看一下然后一侧换气。不建议头部向前换气,因为这需要太多的能量去把头部抬得足够高,以便换气,这会造成游速变慢。在泳池中抬头自由泳将会明白相对于头向下的游泳是多么困难

Try to get comfortable with this peek forward in the pool where it is relatively calm. It will be more difficult in open water, especially in the ocean.
努力让这种朝前的窥视变得舒服,在这种泳池相对平静的地方。在公开水域,特别是在海洋,它将会变得相当困难。

How often is it necessary to look forward? That depends upon your straight line swimming ability coupled with course conditions. Ideally, the less head lifting, the better, but swimming off course is also not advantageous. Initially, try only looking forward every 10 strokes (each arm counts as one).
多久向前看一次是必须的?这依赖于你根据航线情况而具有直线视游进能力。理想地情况是,抬头次数越少越好但游泳偏航线也没就什么优势了,争取每10划向前看一次(每一只手臂划一次算一划)

•Temperatures in open water are usually colder and may require a quicker stroke rate - stroke rate is how many arm pulls you take in a minute. In open water, strokes can be counted once for each arm as it starts pulling through the water. The rate is determined by counting each arm stroke for one minute (or counting for 30 seconds and multiplying by 2, or counting for 15 seconds and multiplying by 4). The best open water swimmers in the world have stroke rates between 70 and 100 strokes per minute, with women generally on the higher end of that scale.
公开水域的温度通常比较冷,这将需要更快的划频-划频是指你每一分钟完成的划次。在公开水域,划水将视每一只手臂开始划水完成算一次。


A faster stroke rate will assist in keeping a swimmer warmer in cold water. Have a friend time your rate in the pool. If it is under 60, you may want to work on increasing it to better handle colder temperatures.
较快的划频将有助于游泳者在冷水中更温暖。在泳池中你的划频有一个友好的次数。如果低于60,你可能想努力提高划频以便更好地处理寒冷的温度、

Don't get frustrated if increasing your stroke rate is difficult. People usually do not have a daily activity where their arm muscles exercise 'aerobically'. Swimmers develop "aerobic arms" through years of training. A runner's aerobic capability may not automatically transfer to the pool where the arms are the primary motor instead of the legs. Likewise, I can swim comfortably at 80 strokes per minutes after years of training, but watch out if I'm out running; I sound like a steam locomotive.
如果增加划频很困难,不要受挫。人们通常不会在日常的活动中锻炼他们手臂肌肉的“有氧能力”。游泳者发展“有氧手臂”要通过数年的训练。一个跑步运动员的有氧能力将不会自动转化成泳池的能力,泳池中手臂是首要动力,而不是腿。同样,经过数年的训练,我能以每分钟80划的频率舒舒服服地游泳,但一旦我出去跑步,我可能会跑得听起来象蒸汽机的声音。

•One more suggestion with which some coaches may disagree; modifying the stroke recovery. The recovery is how a swimmer brings the arm out of the water and back to the front after completing a stroke. Many times coaches teach swimmers to sharply bend their elbow during the recovery. This usually brings the hand close to the surface of the water. This type of recovery may not work as well in waves. A majority of open water marathon swimmers use a straight arm recovery as opposed to a bent elbow recovery. I believe a straight arm recovery works better in waves and also helps reduce strain on the shoulder. The pectoral muscles work more to recover the arm when it is straight while the shoulder and rotator cuff muscles work more to recover the arm when it is bent at the elbow.
还有一个可能一些教练不太同意的建议,修正移臂。移臂是指游泳者在完成一次划水后怎样把手臂带出水并在前方回复入水。很多次教练教育游泳者在整个移臂过程中屈肘,这通常带着他们手掌接近水表面。这种类型的回臂在海浪中将不会工作太好。多数开放水域游泳者使用直臂移臂而不是屈肘移臂。我相信直臂移臂在海浪中工作得更好,而且有助于减少肩部的紧张。当直臂移臂时,胸部肌肉担当了更多的工作;而当屈肘移臂时,肩肌和肩袖肌将担当更多。

Experiment with your recovery and see what works best for you, bent, straight, or somewhere in between. All types have been used by fast swimmers and world record holders; Janet Evans being a prime example of a successful straight arm recovery swimmer.
实践一下你的移臂并了解到哪种方式对你最好,屈臂,直臂,或者某种程度二者兼而有之。所有的类型都会被快速的游泳者和世界纪录保持者采用。Janet Evans 是一个直臂移臂成功的典型例子。

 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-6-28 21:40:51
Open Water Swimming For Beginners - Equipment(公开水域初学者之装备)
The swimming basics, cap suit and goggles are the same with some small variations.
游泳的基本装备,泳帽和护目镜都是基本相同的,只有微小的差别

A thicker swim cap (made of silicon as opposed to latex) might be preferable to keep the head warmer. Sometimes a swimming cap does not stay on very well and continually slips. This can be extremely annoying during a race. Try wearing a new cap which isn't stretched out. Another tip, avoid hair conditioner for several days before a race. Conditioner makes the hair slippery and helps the cap slide. If the water and air are hot, and your hair short, a cap may not be necessary.
一个较薄的泳帽(由硅胶制成,而不是乳胶)可能是最好保护头部温度。有时一个泳帽在头部保持固定不是很好,而持续下滑。这在整个赛程中将会极端令人恼火,尝试戴一个不会弹出的新泳帽,另外一个建议是,比赛前几天避免使用护发素,护发素会使头发打滑,并使帽子也会滑溜。如果水和空气都是热的,并且你的头发很短,泳帽也可能不是必须的,

Tinted goggles which reflect the sun and reduce glare can also be helpful, but they are not a necessity. Make sure your goggle strap is properly adjusted, and you may want to use an anti-fog coating or a bit of saliva to avoid cloudy lenses.
有色镜(注:指镀膜泳镜)能反射太阳光并减少强光刺激,这是非常有帮助的,但它们也不是必须的,确保你的泳镜带调整适当了,或许你想使用防雾涂层或一点唾沫以避免起雾。

A special swimming suit is not necessary although chaffing is a consideration when selecting your attire. Rub marks on the skin from the suit and body parts can occur and are likely in salt water. The more salt, the more rubs. When I swam a 12 mile race around Key West, the water was so salty that all of the seams of my suit created rub marks which was very unusual. Rub areas include the armpit, inner thighs, neck and bust line. Women have more trouble because of their suits at the neck and bust line near the armpit. Men can have trouble where their beard or whiskers rub against their neck and arms. If you are wearing a suit which zips up the back, the zipper at the top often rubs the skin. Sewing a small piece of felt or chamois cloth between the zipper closure and skin will prevent chaffing.
一件特殊的游泳服也不是必须的,尽管擦痒是你选择衣着时的一个考虑因素。身体部位和泳衣可能会发生皮肤上的摩擦,类似于盐水的情况。盐份越多,越易揉擦。当我在基韦斯特游12英里时赛时,那里的水如此咸,我的泳衣所有的接缝处都是一个摩擦制造点,很不寻常。揉擦区域包括腋下,大腿内侧,劲部和胸部线一带。女人更多的麻烦来源于他们的泳衣在劲部和靠近腋下的胸部缝线,男人可能的麻烦是他们的胡须或触须与他们的劲部和手臂的摩擦。如果你穿的一套游泳服在背部有拉链,拉链的顶部经常会与皮肤发生摩擦。缝一小块毡布或麂皮在拉链与皮肤之间将可能防止擦痒。

Vaseline, lanolin, bag balm or other grease can be used to prevent chafe marks. Now that I've had a baby, I suspect that "Desitin" would also work well, but I haven't tried it yet. For beginners, apply grease in the armpit, neck and inner thigh. If rubs are going to occur in other areas, a few training swims will make bring them to the forefront. Some swimmers use gloves, a rag or even a stick off the beach to apply grease without getting it on their hands. Grease on the hands can easily get on goggles.
凡士林,羊脂膏,香袋油或其他唇膏油脂可用于防止擦伤。现在,我已经生了一个孩子,我怀疑“Desitin“也会很好用,但我还没有尝试过呢。对于初学者,适用于腋下,颈部,大腿内侧的油脂。如果揉擦要发生在其他地区,会在一些培训游过程中提前他们知道。一些泳客会在使用的手套,一块擦汗巾,甚至于一根都不在手中的棍子都涂上油脂膏。手上的油脂膏容易沾到护目镜上。

Greasy goggles, not good! Also, don't forget sunblock if you are out during peak sun hours. Experiment and find out what works best for your skin. Waterproof does not necessarily mean that the block will work for hours on end. If you are planning a long training swim, try to start early in the morning before the sun's rays reach their peak
沾上油脂的泳镜,不好!而且不要忘了防晒霜,如果在户外正值太阳最烈的时候。实验并找出什么防护办法最有利于你的皮肤。防水保护并不一必然意味着这一块工作几个小时就结束了。如果你计划一个长期的游泳训练,努力在早上早点开始,赶在太阳达到最烈之前。

 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-6-28 21:41:09
Open Water Swimming For Beginners - The First Time(公开水域之处女游

Now that you have practiced a couple of skills, you are ready for your first open water swim. Your location will dictate which sites are available. Be smart for your first start. If it is raining and cold with 20 mile per hour winds, put your swim off to another day.
既然你已经实践了匹配的技能,那就要准备你的首次公开水域游泳了,你所处的位置决定哪些水域是可行的,让你的首发变得更明智一些,如果天气下雨又冷,并伴有时速达20英里的风速,那就把游泳推到另外一天再进行。

Research the site where you plan to swim. Safety should always be your first priority. Are there lifeguards on duty? If yes, let them know your swim plans; direction, time and/or distance. If not, don't swim alone. Have someone kayak, paddle, swim or walk the shore along your side. Try to stay close to shore in water depth where you can stand unless the ocean surf dictates otherwise.
研究一下你计划去游泳的水域,安全应该总是你的首要考虑因素。如有救生员值班吗?如果有,应让他们知道你的游泳计划;方向,时间和/或者距离. 如果没有救生员,不要单独游.有个人带上橡皮艇,桨,游或行走在你的旁边,在深水的地方要努力保持靠岸近一些,这样你能站起来,除非是另有规定的海洋冲浪。

Find out the water temperature so you will have a better idea what to expect. Are there hazards such as rip currents in the area? What water creatures might be encountered? Talk to the lifeguards or other local swimmers in order to get information about the site.
Have an escape plan from your swim if the weather or your body takes a turn for the worse. This is easy during a shoreline beach swim, just get out and walk back to the start.
了解水温,以便你有一个理想的好主意,如是否该地区有裂流的危害?会遇到什么水生物?同救生员或当地的游泳者交谈,以获得更多关于该水域的信息。

Navigation Landmarks导航陆地标志
Take a moment before getting in the water to look and see what's available for landmarks to help guage your location during your swim. The sun is the easiest landmark to use if it is low in the sky. If you are swimming a straight course and the sun is directly to your left while breathing, watching it will help guage your position. If it suddenly appears in front, you're off course and need to readjust. The ocean or lake shoreline is another excellent landmark that can be seen on each breath (assuming bilateral breathing is part of your repertoire) and are easy to use when swimming an out and back course along the shore.
下水之前,费点功夫看一看并找到有什么可用的陆地标志物,以帮助在整个游程中确认你的位置。

In a lake, there may be a large tree sticking up above the horizon or a brightly colored house across the lake which can be used to keep aim; finally, a reason to be thankful for a homeowner's bright pink paint selection.
Try to use landmarks which are tall or high above the horizon as opposed to those close to the water level. If a landmark is low, it may be difficult to see if there are waves or swell. Look for tall buildings, water towers or church steeples. While swimming at open water camp in Mooselookmeguntic Lake in Maine -yes, that is the actual name of the lake- mountains in the area provided excellent landmarks.

Getting In The Water-- 入水
Some swimmers have a saying, "The worst part of workout is getting in the pool." Getting into open water isn't any easier. Is better to get in slowly and adjust to the temperature or get in quickly? Try both and see which is preferable, either is acceptable with one caveat. If the air temperature is cold, a lot of body heat can be lost while "getting in" if it takes several minutes. Better to get in quickly and lose less body heat than slowly and get chilled before starting. If the water is cold but the air is warm, and sun is shining, it's OK to take longer getting in since your body's not losing heat.
(一些游泳者会说“最坏的练习部分是进入泳池。”进入公开水域并不更容易。最好是慢慢进入并调整到适应的温度亦或快速进入?两者都尝试下,看看哪一个是可取的,或者是一个可接受的警告。如果空气温度很冷,大量身体热量会在你可能花费几分钟跳入水中时散失掉。这样最好是迅速进入水中,它会比慢慢入水并在出发前身体发冻时散失身体热量要少。如果水是凉的,而空气是暖的,并伴有太阳,此时花费较长的时间入水是可以的,因为你的身体没有散失热量。

     Many open water athletes swim for time rather than distance for their training. While watching your wristwatch, time might seem like it is D R A G G I N G! This is fairly common. Five minutes seems like twenty. Don't worry; your 'time sense' will improve with more open water practice.
   很多公开水域铁三运动员在他们的训练中,游泳的时间方面多于距离。当看着你的腕表,时间似乎是一个累赘!这非常普遍,5分钟看起来象20分钟。不要担心,你的“时间感觉”会随着更多公开水域实践经验而提高。

      Adjusting to swimming for long periods without turns, takes time. Take it easy and try to enjoy your first open water experience. Check in after the first few minutes, and ask yourself, "Am I relaxed?" If your arms and legs feel like 2x4's, concentrate on relaxing your muscles and see if that helps your comfort level improve. The mind is your company during open water swims, and its important to keep the "little voice" (sometimes it's shouting) in your head echoing a positive message. Try to keep the 'negative' thoughts (this #*$% stinks!) to a minimum. Sometimes it's helpful to yell out negative thoughts, "This water is FREEZING" or "These waves are horrible!", and get them out of your system.
 适应长时间没有转身的游泳,需要时间,放轻松,尝试享受你的首次公开水域体验。在开始的几分钟再确认一下,问问自己,“我放松了吗?”如果你的手和腿感觉象各自为政,那么要专注于放松你的肌肉,看看是否有助于你的舒适水平得到提高。
      Don't be concerned if your first experience isn't nirvana. Remember back, learning to ride a bike or drive a car? Those skills weren't second nature the first time either. The more experience gained in open water will help increase your comfort level. There is a freedom and challenge swimming in open water which just can't be experienced in the pool. So go out and have some fun with it!

 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-6-28 21:41:24
Open Water Swimming Workout Tips(公开水域练习小贴士)
There is more to swimming than just doing lap after lap, turning when you reach the wall at the end of the swimming pool. You can swim in places with no walls -open water swimming . Lakes, oceans, and rivers, all open water swimming arenas, offer a great change of scenery - go to your local beach for today's swimming workout instead of more laps in the swimming pool. Depending on the reasons you do open water swimming, you may find it more psychologically rewarding; open water swimming can certainly be just as productive for building your fitness and health .Competitive open water swimming events are held at many distances, from across the local pond to 24 miles or more. There are open water swimming races and events at Manhattan Island (28 miles), Tampa Bay (24 miles), and the English Channel (30 to 40 miles). Open Water World Championships, sanctioned by FINA, are held at distances of 5km and 25km; there are other distances contested, too. USA Swimming has an Open Water Division. And of course, in the world of triathlons,open water swims are the first leg of the race. Distances can vary from the sprint triathlon's short (500 meter) splash to the Ironman distance's long (2.4 mile) soak.
Open Water Swimming Tips
  • There are no lines on the bottom. Look forward and sideways for landmarks to aid navigation, but find the balance between looking too often and not looking enough.
  • Put on your sunscreen - and don't forget your lips.
  • Drink plenty of fluids before you begin.
  • Make sure you follow the buddy system - if you are at a guarded beach, tell the lifeguards what you are doing.
  • You can do any type of open water swimming workout - long straight swims, intervals where you vary the intensity level, even short sprints then tread or float in place.
  • It will be easier to count strokes compared to doing efforts for time or distance; 50 strokes at a high effort, 50 strokes easy, etc.
  • Base your open water swimming workout on time spent swimming, not how far you think you have gone.
  • Stay on the safe side of distance from shore - DON'T GO OUT TOO FAR.
  • If you are in a race, watch out for the flailing arms and legs of those around you - getting hit or scratched hurts, and can knock off your goggles.
  • Learn to use the waves to help you ride up and slide down.
  • Time your stroke so you can breath without getting splashed in the face.
  • Make sure you teach yourself how to breath to either side, left or right. If the waves are coming for the right, breathing to the left is much, much easier.
  • If they are allowed, wetsuits designed for open water swimming will help - you will be amazed at the extra warmth and the additional speed with no additional effort.
  • Overcoming a fear of open water swimming is worth it; it may take time and effort, but you can do it.
If you choose do open water swimming events or open water swimming workouts just to add variety to your workout, to practice for a triathlon, or to get ready for an open water race, have fun and enjoy the freedom of swimming without the walls.

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