[公开水域] 公开水域游泳技巧

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天生小浪子 发表于 2017-12-27 11:23:15
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In my many years in this sport, I have never seen any reasonably complete article in the magazines dealing with open water swimming (they seem to rehash the same basic stuff every few years). A lot of them talk about how to draft, or tell you to look up every few strokes to stay on course, but very few seem to deal with the subject in much detail.
  
  在我多年的运动生涯中,我从未在任何杂志中看到过合理的、完整的对付公开水域游泳的文章(他们似乎只是每几年训练一些新手)。很多文章只是谈一些如何跟随游,或者告诉你几个动作后向上看,以保持航线,但是没有多少文章对这个话题说的足够详细。
  
  So last summer, I started to gather my thoughts and experiences on the subject. I finally got back to it just now. Rather than deal just with racing in open water, I have tried to deal with both swimming for fun and racing.
  于是去年夏天,我开始整理我关于公开水域游泳的想法和经验。现在,我终于弄好了这些。相比于在公开水域中比赛,我更喜欢同时考虑比赛和获得乐趣。
  
  I welcome all comments! (Did I forget anything? Am I completely off base? Are there any other tips that you have found particularly helpful?) Enjoy!
  我欢迎任何建议! (我忘记了说什么吗?或者我完全错了?你有发现什么其他的技巧非常有帮助吗?)享受这些!
  John Walker. Jackson & Tull Chartered Engineers, Seabrook, Maryland.
  (who has plenty of experience as an involuntary bodysurfer)
  
  Open Water
  公开水域
  Visibility of less than 2 feet. No stripe to follow on the bottom. Unseen creatures lurking under you. Seen creatures kicking you and flailing their arms all around you. Choppy water trying to splash in your mouth on every breath. Cold water. Flotsam and jetsam....
  
  可视距离小于2英尺。底部没有线条可以作为指示。看不见你下方是否有潜伏的生物。看得见很多生物在踢你,他们的手臂挥舞着,包围着你。每次呼吸都有波涛冲进你的嘴巴中。冰冷的水。漂浮物……
  
  
  I can't understand why anyone would be concerned about open water.
  真搞不懂为什么每个人都想去公开水域游泳。
  
  Seriously though, open water swimming can be a wonderful activity. Open water swimming is to pool swimming as trail running is to track running. It is a chance to get out and simply enjoy your surroundings. You can stretch out your stroke and get into a rhythm that you can't achieve when there are walls every 25 or 50 meters.
  说正经的,公开水域游泳可以是很爽的活动。公开水域游泳相对于在游泳池中游泳,就像是越野跑相对于在田径场跑步。到户外去,乐情于水。你可以伸展你的划臂,找到你的节奏,不会再有一堵墙每隔25或50米就来拦着你。
  Get Comfortable
  舒服一点
  Admittedly, it is important to feel comfortable in open water before you can really enjoy it. And to feel comfortable, you have to understand what the water can do, what you can do, and have some confidence that you can handle whatever it throws at you. Don't go into the water with the attitude that you can depend upon someone else to bail you out. Lifeguards, and other people, will do what they can to help you, but if seven other people also go in with the same attitude and have trouble at the same time you do....
  
  不可否认,在你真正享受公开水域之前,舒服的感觉是很重要的。要想感到舒服,你必须理解水能做什么,你能做什么,并且自信你可以处理任何情况。在你入水的时候,千万不要带着依赖某人来救你的情绪,无论这个人是救生员,还是其他人。但是如果你看到其他人带着这样的情绪入水并且碰到了麻烦,你可要救他们……
  Maintaining Your Composure
  保持镇静
  In almost every pool I know, it is impossible to be more than 4 lane widths from a wall. And with lane ropes installed, there is always something within an arms reach for support in case you get a mouth full of water. That is not the case with open water.
  
  在游泳池里,你和池壁之间最长的距离只有4个分道。如果有分道线,当你满嘴是水的时候,总会有一些小于一臂的距离的东西来支撑你。在公开水域没有这些。
  
  Swimming alone or with a small group, there is often nothing right next to you to hang onto. At least in races, there are usually lifeguards on rescue boards or kayaks nearby to quickly lend assistance. How far do you feel comfortable swimming without hanging onto something?
  无论是单独游泳,还是和一个小团队游泳,通常在你身边没有什么抓一下、把一下的。在比赛中,你的附近通常会有救生员在救生船或者皮划艇上,随时救援。那么,在没有安全保障的情况下,多长的游泳距离是你感觉安然无事的呢?
  
  Think carefully about that question, because the answer is very important. In the pool, do you grab the wall at each turn in order to get a little rest or a little more breath? Can you swim longer distances without grabbing a wall? Can you stay afloat while coughing from getting a mouthful of water, or do you hang onto the lane rope? Can you keep swimming when you get a side stitch, calf cramp, or foot cramp? Can you swim underwater for a few seconds without feeling claustrophobic?
  
  仔细考虑这个问题,因为这个答案太重要了。在游泳池中,你是否在每次转身的时候抓一下池壁,来休息一小下,多喘一口气呢?你能否在不抓池壁的情况下游更长的距离呢?当你呛水的时候,你能漂浮,或者抓着分道线来咳嗽吗?你能在岔气、小腿抽筋、脚抽筋的情况下继续坚持游泳吗?你能在水下游几秒,而不会感到幽闭恐惧?
  
  Although it is not uncommon for even very experienced swimmers to occasionally feel a little panicky in open water, panicking is about the worst thing you can do in open water (it isn't recommended in many other situations either). The biggest mental challenge to open water swimming is to maintain composure no matter what happens. This may require doing some breaststroke, or even treading water or floating for a little while. I have always valued my life a lot more than staying with the pack, a fast time, or riding a great wave. Find some way to keep afloat and to regain your composure. With this mental security, you will at least enable yourself to enter another event at a later date. With that in mind, I am not aware of any open water races that require you to swim any particular stroke, so do whatever stroke you feel most comfortable with.
  尽管,就算是经验丰富的游泳者偶尔在公开水域中感到恐慌也是很寻常的, 但是恐慌几乎是你在公开水域中可以做的最糟糕的事情(同时也有很多其他的态度不推荐)。在公开水域中游泳,无论发生什么情况,保持镇静是最大的挑战。这可能需要你游一会蛙泳,或者踩水,或者漂浮一会。我一直觉得生命比跟住团队、更快的速度,或者战胜一个大波浪更重要。找到重新找回你的镇静的方法。有了这个精神保障,你起码还能参加下一次比赛。在头脑中保持这个想法,我不知道有任何公开水域比赛需要你游什么特别的泳姿,所有就用你最把握的泳姿吧。
  Don't Swim Alone
  不要独自游泳
  Even if you have tried to prepare for every possible problem, it is always possible that something unexpected will happen and you find yourself needing help. That is not the time to be alone. If there are lifeguards, let them know your plans before you start swimming. If there are no lifeguards, then swim with someone else (keeping an eye on each other and knowing lifesaving will both help). Even if there are lifeguards, a partner will be able to get to you a lot sooner than a lifeguard.
  
  即使你试着准备好了应付所有可能麻烦 ,还是会有些未可预知的事情发生,你发现自己需要帮助。这时候不应该独自一人。如果有救生员,游泳之前告诉他们你的计划。如果没有救生员,和其他人一起游泳(互相在视线之内,了解救生知识,都会有帮助的)。甚至即使有救生员,同伴到你身边也会快得多。
  Make Yourself Visible
  让自己醒目
  Along those same lines, make yourself easy to see. Not only will it help people find you if you need help, but it may also help boats see you and only come close instead of running over you. Those bright swim caps they make you wear at races aren't just for decoration! The only times I ever wear a swim cap are in open water and cold water (like when the heater goes out in the pool).
  
  沿着那些相同的路线,让自己醒目。不仅因为这会帮助人们找到你,并且也会帮助船只看到你,而不是从你身上开过去。那些闪闪发光的泳帽不止是为了装饰! 只要在公开水域或者冰冷的水中,我就戴泳帽。
  
  Navigation
  导航
  Can you swim in the right direction when there is no line painted on the bottom? Most of the articles I have read on open water swimming deal with this issue by telling you to look up every few strokes. Practice in a pool. Try lifting your head up and looking at the end of your lane. Lift your head at different times during your stroke and see what feels most comfortable. With that accomplished, you have tackled the most important part of navigation in open water. That is really all you need to be able to do, although there are refinements to help you speed up and make it easier.
  
  当底部没有画线,你能按照正确的方向游泳吗?我所看过的关于这方面的大多数文章,都是告诉你,在几次划水后要抬头看。在游泳池中练习。努力抬头,看分道线的终点。找到最佳的抬头频率。熟练了之后,你就抓住了在公开水域中导航的最重要的部分。这的确就是你确实需要去做的事情,然而,还有一些细微的改良,可以让你做的更容易。
  
  Refinements:
  改良:
  Looking up slows you down and tires you out. If you can stay on course, you will be much better off looking up every 20 strokes as opposed to every 6 strokes. But that is a big "if." Not looking up may speed you up, but that doesn't do much good if you start swimming in circles. The classic solution to this is to practice swimming a length of the pool with your eyes closed. The lane ropes will quickly make it apparent in which direction you naturally veer. Work to straighten out your stroke.
  抬头看会让你下沉,并且受累。 如果你保持在航线上,20次划水看一下,比6次划水就看一下要好太多了。但这是个很大的“如果”。不抬头可以让你速度增快,但是如果你开始转圈游,那就很不好了。经典的解决方法是,在游泳池中练习闭眼游泳的长度。分道线可以很容易的帮助你辨别自己向哪边偏。练习,让自己按照直线前进。
  
  Know where to expect the buoy (I'll use the term buoy, even though you may end up using some other landmark) when you look. It is a whole lot easier to find the North Star if you start by looking generally north. Likewise, it is a whole lot easier to spot a buoy or some other target if you generally look in the right direction and know where to expect it. During swim practices in the pool, I look at the pace clock in the middle of swims. Because I am too far down the pool by my second breath off the wall, I get only one chance to read it. In order to get a good reading, I need to know where I expect to see the second hand.
  当你在抬头看的时候,要知道在哪里理应找到浮标(我会用term buoy,即使你最终会用其他的界标)。如果你要找北,看北极星是最容易的。同样的,如果你看的方向大致正确,并且知道浮标或者其他什么标志理应在什么地方,要找到标志是最容易的。在游泳池中练习的时候,我在游泳中间看岸边的计时钟。为了训练自己获得好的方向感,我需要知道哪里理应看到第二个指针。
  
  Don't look for too long. If you don't spot your marker (buoy) quickly, take another stroke and look again then. or you may have only gotten a glimpse of the buoy before you had to put your face back in the water. But this should help you spot it more quickly the next time you look. In choppy or rough water, you may be in the trough of a wave in one stroke, making a buoy impossible to see. But two strokes later, you may be on the crest and able to see for hundreds of yards. Note also that even though you may be on the crest of the wave, the buoy may be in a trough. Oh well, it is better to keep swimming in the direction where you think the buoy is located than to stop until you sight it. Although lifeguards swim with their heads up, we don't have to. A lifeguard's target is much more likely to disappear under the water than a big orange buoy (and have greater consequences, too).
  不要看的太远。如果你不能一下子看到你的标志(比如浮标) ,那就在下次划水的时候再看一次。在波涛汹涌的水中,你可能在波谷中,无法看到浮标。但是两次划水后,你可能已经在波峰上,可以看到上百米远。注意,当你在波峰上的时候,浮标可能是在波谷。向着自己认为浮标的位置保持前行,比停下来直到看到浮标要好。尽管救生员一直抬头游泳,但是我们不用非得这样。救生员的目标很飘忽,而且责任重大。
  
  Follow others. If you are swimming with others, and they appear to be swimming in a straight line, just follow them. But even though they will probably not intentionally veer off course, you should still check periodically.
  跟着其他人。如果你和其他人一起游泳,并且他们看起来是游的一条直线,那就跟着他们。但是,尽管他们不会故意偏离航线,但是你还是应该时常核对一下是否还在航线上。
  
  Find things to the side that you can use as markers. Although at 4.4 miles, the Great Chesapeake Bay Swim is one of the longer popular open water swims, it is quite easy navigationally. The swim goes from the western shore of the bay to the eastern shore between the two spans of the bridge. I rarely had to look forward in this swim. I saw the south span whenever I breathed on my right and the north span when I breathed on my left. Likewise, you can use the shore to keep you on target.
  找到你身边可以作为标志的东西。尽管拥有4.4英里长度的Great Chesapeake Bay比赛是流行的公开水域比赛中比较长的一条,但是这个比赛还是很容易导航。你只要从桥的两个桥墩中穿过,从海湾的西岸到东岸就行了。过程中我很少向前看。我就在右侧换气的时候盯住南边的桥墩,在左侧换气的时候盯住北面的桥墩。同样的,你可以用河岸作为你的标志。
  
  Use your imagination. There are lots of things around that can help you stay in a straight line without looking up too often. I have used the direction that the rays of sunlight are entering the water to help me stay in a straight line. It certainly isn't perfect, but if it allows me to look up only every 20 strokes instead of 6, it is worth it.
  运用你的想像。有很多东西可以让你不必频繁的抬头,但是可以保持在一条直线上。我曾经用在水中的光线来保持自己的在一条直线上。这当然不是完美的办法,但是如果它让你不是6次划水就抬头一次,而是20次划水才抬头一次的话,值得。
  
  Don't make big adjustments to your position. If you find yourself quite a ways to the side of the course, change your direction to slowly move back. Remember that the shortest distance from your current position to the next turn is a straight line, no matter where you are. Don't bother swimming straight back to the other swimmers before heading for the next turn; just go for the next turn. You really do not swim much further if you gradually move away from the shortest path and then gradually move back. On an out and back 1.5K swim, you can swim over 40 meters to the side on each leg of the swim, and still swim only an additional 10 meters for the entire swim.
  不要做大的方向调整。如果你发现你自己偏离航线比较多的话,慢慢的改变你的方向。要记住,两点之间直线最短。不要在下一个转弯前稀里糊涂的游回到其他游泳者中间;只要向着下一个转弯游过去就行了。如果你慢慢的调整方向、游回航线,你真的不会多游多少路的。在一个往返1.5km的泳程中,你如果偏出了边线40米,你其实也只不过多游了10米罢了。
  Racing with Others
  和其他人比赛
  Racing in open water is not quite the same as just swimming in open water. There are lots of other people around. Do you feel comfortable swimming in the midst of 400 flailing arms and legs? Do you prefer having a little space around you? Keep this in mind during the swim. You almost always have the ability to control how large of a pack you are swimming in. If there are too many arms and legs, move to the outside of the course. I recommend the outside of the course over the inside of the course because of turns. At turns, everybody bunches up as close to the buoy as they can. If you are on the inside, you must work your way into that group in order to swim around the buoy (rules generally frown upon swimming to the inside of the turn buoy). If you are on the outside, you can remain just to the outside as everybody else fights to get within touching distance of the buoy.
  
  在公开水域中比赛,和在公开水域中游泳是不一样的。有很多人在你的周围。在400支咣咣挥舞的手臂和腿中间游泳,你会感觉咋样?你乐意多有点地方吗? 游的过程中要记住这个想法。你一直可以控制自己游泳的地方有多少人。如果腿和手太多了,那就在航线的外围游。因为你要考虑转弯,所以我推荐在航线的外围游,而不是在航线的中间。在转弯的地方,大家都尽可能往浮标的地方挤。如果你在中间的话,你就得往人堆里挤,才能绕过浮标(通常,规则不会允许你从浮标里面绕过去的)。如果你在航线的外围,你可以在其他人在拼命从浮标边绕开的时候,轻轻松松的留在外围。
  
  Although there are advantages to be gained from drafting other swimmers, you have to be careful in doing so - there are some pitfalls also. When I am drafting someone else, I often notice that my stroke is much choppier as I am struggling to stay in the proper position. If the swimmer is the same speed as me, I find this choppiness just makes me more tired without any additional speed. Occasionally, I will find a swimmer or group of swimmers who I can draft, but I probably spend most of my time in open water races looking for open water where I can stretch out my stroke and cruise. Don't convince yourself that you have to draft just because it is faster; it may not be worth it, so examine each situation.
  尽管可以从跟随其他游泳者中占点便宜,但是你必须要小心这么做——会有陷阱的。当我跟随某人的时候,我发现为了努力的游在恰当的位置,我的划臂会有些乱套。如果这个家伙的速度跟你差不多,我发现这个乱套的划臂只是让我更累,没啥速度的提升。有时候,我发现某个游泳者或者某个群体我可以跟随,但是我可能得花大把的时间去找我可以加速巡航的空地。不要只是因为更快而跟随;这可能会不划算。你得自信掂量每个情况。
  Race Start (finding/creating space)
  比赛开始(寻找、创造空间)
  Take a handful of spaghetti (uncooked is much less messy) and hold it so all the noodles are resting vertically on the table. (If you are at the office, you can go to the supply cabinet and use a handful of pens as a substitute) They can all be contained in a pretty small circle on the table. Now let them all fall over in the same direction. They are now all over each other and take up much more space on the table. Now imagine a whole bunch of swimmers/triathletes standing on the beach or treading water behind the starting line. They are contained in a pretty small area. Now sound the starting horn and what happens? They all go from being vertical to being horizontal and, just like the spaghetti, are now all over each other. No wonder we always get mercilessly kicked and elbowed at the beginning of races; there just isn't enough room for everybody until after we start to spread out.
  
  拿起一把意大利面条(没煮过的就不会那么脏了),把住一头,所有的面条就会垂直的指向桌面。(如果你在办公室,你可以去找一把笔)它们可以在桌面上保持一个很小的圆圈。现在让它们向一个方向落下,他们互相碰撞,在桌面上占了更大的地方。想像一群游泳者,或者铁三运动员站在起跑线后,在岸边或者在踩水,他们保持在一个很小的圆圈中。现在发令枪响了,会发生啥?他们都从垂直的变成水平的了,就像意大利面条一样,一个挤一个。毫无疑问,我们总是被咣咣猛踹和肘击;这只是因为地方不够。直到我们渐渐分散开来。
  
  If you don't want to be a part of all those flying arms and legs, then plan your escape route before the race starts. Don't start in the middle of the front. Start in the the back, where nobody else will really want your space in the water. The only trouble is that as people get tired after the initial sprint, you will have to navigate through them (or over them, but I don't think Miss Manners would approve). Another option is to start near one side or the other. You can always just swim a little further to the outside to get away from the elbows, yet there aren't as many people to swim through after they tire from their sprint. If you want to mix it up with the other swimmers, then be prepared to do a little fighting to maintain your space. A bigger, more forceful kick is one method of getting a little more room. The splash acts as discouragement for those around you. Even if they are not afraid of getting kicked, I don't know of many swimmers who like to take a breath while getting splashed in the face. Another trick that is not too obnoxious is simply to make your pull a little wider and hold your forearm close to vertical. This allows you to use your forearm to keep other swimmers a slight distance to your side.
  如果你不想成为那些挥舞的手臂和腿中的一份子, 那就在比赛开始前计划好自己的逃跑路线。不要在中前位置出发。在后面出发,那里没人想占你的地方。这个办法唯一的麻烦是,在短距离的冲刺后,有人感到疲惫,你就得绕过他们(或者从他们的上方游过,但是这不大礼貌)。另外一个方案是,从边上出发。远离肘击,只不过多游了一小点而已,而且也不需要去做什么不礼貌的事情。如果你打算混在其他人中间,那你得做好为了自我空间而奋斗的准备。猛踹是保持自己的小地方的办法之一。猛溅起水花也可以让旁边的人离你远点。即使他们不怕踹,但是大多数游泳的人不会喜欢在换气的时候给泼一脸水。另外一个不是这么恶毒的把戏可以让你的旁边稍微宽点:把胳膊横起来游。
  Waves/Swells
  波浪、涌浪
  For the purposes of this discussion, I will distinguish between waves (or swells), breakers, and chop. Waves travel in one direction and make you go up and down. Breakers are what result when waves reach shallow water. Breakers crash over your head and try to grind you into the ground. Chop is the result of lots of little waves with no apparent direction to them. Imagine putting 100 kids in a pool with no lane ropes or gutters - the end result is what I would call chop. It is also what you often get in windy conditions.
  
  为了讨论的清楚一些,我将区分波浪(或者涌浪),碎浪和方向骤变的浪。同一方向的波浪使得你上下漂动。碎浪是波浪涌到浅水时形成的。浪花冲击你的头,把你压到水下去。方向骤变的浪是在很多不同方向上的小波浪涌在一起形成的。假象把100个小孩扔到没有分道线的水池中,就会产生方向骤变的浪。这是在多风的天气经常出现的浪。
  
  Every body of water has waves and chop. Modern pools do an amazing job at keeping them to a minimum; large bodies of water do not. Remember all those stroke drills you have done in the pool, teaching you to keep your fingers just above the surface on the recovery and to have a nice smooth entry into the water? You can forget them in wavy choppy water. In rough water, if you keep your fingers just above the surface of the water, then you are quite likely to have an unexpected wave come along and cause your hand to enter the water below your shoulder. This is not ideal! In order to allow a reasonable stroke, you need to have a much higher recovery with your hand in open water. Get it out of the water and in the air quickly. Then when it comes time to put it back in the water, get it quickly from being well above the water to being in the water. The less time your hand spends at the water surface, the less likely it will be affected by waves and chop.
  所有的水域都有波浪和方向骤变的浪。现代化的游泳池尽量让这些浪最小,但是大的水域是做不到的。记得在游泳池中,摆臂的时候,你要保持你的手恰好在水面上,以便于手掌顺溜入水。在波浪汹涌的水面上,你忘了这个动作吧。在这种水面上,如果你把手恰好保持在水面上,突然而来的浪可能会把你的手冲入到水中,你的肩膀之下。这太不爽了!要想划水动作合理,在公开水域中,你的摆臂动作要距离水面超高才行。把手臂快速抽出水面,手臂入水的时候也要快,动作要唰唰的,才能让你的手被波浪冲走的概率降低。
  
  And since waves generally move in the same direction (the wake from a boat is an exception), imagine what will happen if the waves are coming from your right and you can only breath to the right. Unless you happen to have a set of gills, you probably will not be too comfortable. This is one good reason to learn bilateral breathing.
  
  由于波浪一般都朝着一个方向(除非他们碰到船),假设,波浪是从你的右边来,但是很不幸,你只会右侧换气,那会咋样?除非你有一对腮,不然我估计你不会舒服的。这也是为啥要练习双边换气。
  Breakers
  碎浪
  For some people, breaking waves are loads of fun. For others, they are a source of terror. If you are in the latter group, then think twice before entering any ocean swims. It is best to become comfortable with breaking waves before having to negotiate them in a race. Waves break because of interaction with the bottom. Bigger waves also affect water motion at a deeper depth, so they interact with the bottom and break further from shore. Watch it sometime: the little 6 inch waves break right on the shore and the big waves break quite a ways from shore.
  
  对于某些人来说,碎浪相当好玩。对于其他人来说,碎浪是恐怖之源。如果你水平不高,在你开始在海里游泳之前要考虑再三这个碎浪。在比赛之前,最好就要对碎浪开始熟悉起来。碎浪是波浪和水底冲击产生的。大一点的波浪也会影响在深一些的地方的水,它们和水底以及远离岸边的碎浪撞击。观察一下,在岸边,就是6英寸的小波浪,远离岸边,波浪变得大起来。
  
  
  For the most part, the maximum size of the waves is pretty predictable. Watch them for a few minutes and see how big they are and how far out they break. It would be very unlikely that they will change much in the time it takes you to do your swim. This is important because the best place to swim is directly affected by where the waves are breaking. Between the breakers and shore, a lot of water goes in and goes out with a lot of force. Most people with a functioning self-preservation instinct do not just stand around in this area. And even if they try, they tend to get moved around by the water.
  多数情况下,最大的波浪是基本可以预测的。观察它们几分钟,看看它们有多大,多远的地方分开的。 在你游泳的时候,基本上不大可能波浪又变了。这很重要,因为游泳的最佳地点主要受到波浪破浪的影响。在岸边和碎浪之间,在强力的推动下,水涌来涌去。大多数人本能的都不会只是在这个地方游。即使有人试着在这个地方游,他们也更趋向围绕着这个水域来游。
  
  Just beyond the breakers, the swells are quite large, and make swimming quite difficult. Besides, if one slightly larger than usual wave came in, you might not be past its breaking point. Involuntary bodysurfing is not the same as open water swimming. As you get further beyond the breakers, the swells are not nearly so large, so swimming becomes much easier. Beyond a certain distance, going further beyond the breakers doesn't affect the size of the swells at all, it only gets you further beyond the breakers and further from shore.
  就在碎浪的旁边,涌浪是相当大的,游泳会很费劲。这时候,如果一个稍微有点大的波浪过来,你恐怕没啥机会躲开波浪的破浪点。下意识的身体反应会和在公开水域不同。随着你离碎浪越远,涌浪就不会那么大了,游起来就容易多了。远离一定的距离后,远处的碎浪不会再影响涌浪的大小了,只是让你离碎浪和海岸更远。
  
  So the trick is to get beyond the breakers as quickly as possible, swim around out there, and then get from the breakers back to shore again as quickly as possible. When getting past the breakers or back into shore, the biggest thing to remember is not to fight the water! It will win. Don't be afraid to let the water push you around a little - it is better to give a little than to break. There are lots of tricks that can help keep your body intact when getting past the breakers.
  所以,技巧是尽快的离开碎浪,绕开这个区域,然后尽快的游过从岸边过来的破浪点。当通过破浪点或者回到岸边,最重要的事情是,不要和水搏斗!它会赢的。不要担心水把你冲歪了一点——冲歪一点比崩溃强。这有一些技巧可以让你在通过破浪点的时候保持气节。
  
  Go under/through the wave. I list this first because I think it is probably the most useful technique. Just before a wave breaks, you can dive under the wave or through the vertical wall of water and go through the wave. You can actually just stand there (preferably sideways so it doesn't have as much to push on) and let the wave go around you. If the wave has already broken, don't try to go through the whitewater that results. That is another good way to become an involuntary bodysurfer. Instead, go under the wave. All that whitewater is headed for shore on top of comparatively calm water down below. Find that calmer water before the whitewater finds you. It will still be pretty turbulent, but it won't be headed for shore and trying to take everything along with it. Once the turbulence subsides, the wave has passed and you can come to the surface again. Just remember to keep some air in your lungs in case you get to the surface just before another wave reaches you. If that happens, get a quick breath if you can, dive back under, hope you can get a real breath after this wave and try to stay calm and relaxed. It doesn't take much water to provide protection. When I used to work at the ocean, I often found myself in a situation where I was standing knee deep water with a 5-6 foot wave approaching. I couldn't outrun it back to shore, and I couldn't fight it, so I flattened myself on the sandy bottom as well as I could and waited out the turbulence. I'm alive today, so we have at least some anecdotal evidence that it works reasonably well.
  从波浪下游过去。我把这个技巧列在第一位,因为我想这是最有用的。在一个波浪破浪之前,你可以从波浪下潜水而过,或者穿过波浪竖起的“水墙”。你可以就保持在原地让波浪冲过去(或者斜着会更合理一点,因为浪冲击的力量不会那么大)。如果波浪已经破浪了,不要试着穿过激浪。这还有另外一个成为下意识的身体冲浪的好办法。与之相反,进到水下。所有的激流都是朝向海岸的,其下的水则相当的安静。在激浪冲到你之前,找到这片安静的水。这片水还是会很汹涌,但是它不会朝向海岸并且要把一切都带走。当涡流变得比较安静,波浪已经冲过去了,你可以回到水面上来了。记得要在肺里保留点气体,以防当你刚出到水面的时候,又一个波浪过来了。如果真的来了,尽快吸一口气,潜水下去,保持镇静和放松,满怀希望的等着这个波浪过去,你能好好的吸上一口空气。其实不需要很多水,就可以这样做。我在海边工作的时候,我经常处在齐膝深的水中,当时有5-6英尺(1.5-1.8米)的波浪。我想回岸边去,但是我跑不快,我也不能和波浪搏斗,于是我就平躺在沙滩的底部,等着涡流过去。我今天还活着,所以我们至少有一个奇闻异事一般的例证说明,这个方法还相当不错。
  
  
  Go over the wave. If the wave is small, then you are probably still in shallow water and can jump over it. If the wave is not very small and is just beginning to break, then you can float up and over it. You can probably imagine what happens if you try this and the wave has really started to break - you find yourself halfway back to shore when you finally surface.
  翻过波浪。如果波浪不大,那么你可能还是在浅水中,你可以跳过波浪。如果波浪不是很小,已经开始破浪,那么你可以在上面漂浮过去。如果破浪比较大,那么你可以想像如果用这种方法会发生什么——你会被波浪冲回到海岸一半的距离。
  
  
  Force yourself through the wave. This is useful only for waves that are too big to jump over but still too small to dive through or go under. The idea is to turn sideways and lean your shoulder or hip into the wave as it breaks. Turning sideways allows the wave to go around you instead of through you. By leaning into the wave, it is likely that it will stand you back up as it passes, but it shouldn't knock you over.
  强迫自己穿过波浪。这只是当波浪大的不能跳过但是又小的不能潜水或者从下面穿过的时候才有用。方法是当破浪的时候,斜着你的肩或者臀部,侧面冲进波浪。侧面冲进波浪可以让波浪绕着你过去,而不是冲过你。斜着进入波浪,有可能让你在波浪经过的时候被推走,而不是把你弄翻倒。
  
  
  Once past the breakers, remember to move with the swells. It is quite possible to be standing in waist deep water one second and have water over your head the next. Don't fight it, when a swell goes by, allow yourself to float over it. It will push you toward shore a little bit, but you are past the breakers, so it won't push you all the way. And once it is past you and you are in shallow water again, you'll feel the water pushing you away from shore. Don't fight it, just move with it. It will move you back to the same place you were before the swell pushed you a little bit towards shore.
  一旦过了破浪,记得要跟着涌浪移动。很有可能前一秒你还在齐腰深的海水中,下一秒你就在齐顶深的水中了。不要和涌浪搏斗,当它来的时候,让自己跟着它漂动。你会被推回海岸一点,但是你已经过了破浪的,所以不会把你完全推回去的。一旦涌浪过了你,你又在浅水中了,你会感觉到水把你向着离开海岸的方向推。不要和水搏斗,跟着它移动就行了。在涌浪把你推向海岸一点之前,你会回到前面你在的位置的。
  
  Although swimming past the breakers is relatively calm, very few people want to stay out there forever. This requires that you be able to get back to shore. This usually can be done much more quickly than getting out past the breakers in the first place since the breaking waves can help you in this case. The waves travel to shore much more quickly than you can swim, so in this situation, you want to become an intentional bodysurfer.
  尽管游过破浪是相对平静的,但是没几个人想一直和破浪呆着。你被要求回到岸边。这比你从岸边出发的时候要容易多了,因为波浪会帮助你。波浪比你游泳要快的太多,所以在这种情况下,你要故意把自己弄成一个身体滑板者。
  
  The basic idea of bodysurfing is simple - get into a streamlined position and let the wave push you. But that alone will not get you very far. On your bike, have you ever drafted a tandem on a downhill? If you start the descent with the tandem and accelerate with it, you can get up to some pretty incredible speeds. Yahoo! However, if you start the descent after the tandem, then you have no hope of ever catching it. If you start ahead of the tandem, by the time it passes you it will be going too fast for you to accelerate and catch its draft. Bodysurfing waves is similar.
  身体滑板者的基本方法很简单——保持个流线型姿态,让波浪推你。但是如果只是这样,不会让你走的很远。你曾经在串联自行车车队骑过下坡吗?如果你在车队中加速下降,你可以到达一个难以置信的快速。哇呜!但是如果你是尾随着车队加速的,你甚至没希望追上车队。如果你在车队的第一个,车速会快到你无法跟随的程度。身体滑板也和这个类似。
  
  If you are behind the wave when it breaks, then it is pretty obvious that you won't be riding it. But most people don't realize that if they are in front of the wave when it breaks, it will give them a good push and throw them around a bit, but will ultimately pass by them.
  如果当波浪破浪的时候,你是在它的后面,显然你骑不上去了。但是但多数人没有意识到,如果当波浪破浪的时候,他们在波浪的前面,波浪会给他们一个强力的推动,并且有一点抛起来的意思,但是最终波浪会过去。
  
  
  But if you are on the top of the wave as it begins to break, you can stay right on the front of it and ride it all the way to shore. Just as the wave is breaking, take one or two strong pulls, hold your breath, get in a good streamline, and kick like crazy in order to stay on the front of the wave.
  但是如果当波浪开始破浪的时候你是在上面,你可以正好呆在它的前面,骑它回到海岸。正当波浪破浪的时候,猛划两下,屏住呼吸,保持一个好的流线型,玩命打腿,好把自己保持在波浪的前面。
  
  As insurance in case you run into someone, people who value their fingers make fists, and people who value their heads keep their hands together (grabbing a thumb with the opposite hand works very well). You learn this lesson very quickly if you do what we did as teenagers, aiming at friends while bodysurfing.
  为了防止撞到别人,人们攥起拳头保护手指,并紧手臂保护头部(抓住一个大拇指并住手臂很有效)。如果你在十几岁的时候和我们一样在身体冲浪的时候瞄准伙伴的话,你会很快学会这个的。
  
  If you become very adept at bodysurfing, you can ride waves all the way to shore and emerge from the water looking like a sand monster, with enough sand in your hair and on your body to get a good start on your own sand volleyball court. If you don't think you would enjoy doing the bike ride like this, then you should stop riding the wave when the water gets shallow and run the rest of the way. I usually just pick my head up, do a breaststroke pull, and tuck my legs underneath me.
  如果你已经很擅长身体冲浪,你能骑着浪一直冲到岸边,从水中出来就像是一个沙滩怪物,然后带着充足的沙子去咔咔打沙滩排球……如果你觉得像这样骑车不是很好的话,你应该在水变浅的时候停止骑浪,跑出剩余的路。我通常在水到头顶深度的时候开始蛙泳。
  Current
  水流
  
  There really isn't any special technique for swimming with or against currents. It is just like swimming in calm water. But mentally, it can be very different. Swimming against a weak current, it can take substantially longer to cover a given distance (you don't get anywhere swimming against a strong current). Swimming with a current, you can finish a given distance much faster than otherwise possible. I remember seeing winning times of well under 40 minutes for the Point Bonita 10K (San Francisco area). That is a pretty respectable running pace, but this is a 10K swim! It is obvious that the currents move pretty quickly through the Golden Gate.
  在顺水和逆水中游泳,真的没啥特别的技巧——就和在静水中游泳一样。但是在精神上,可能会非常不一样。在微弱的水流中逆流游泳,要比赛程游的更长(你不会在很猛的水流中逆水游泳的)顺水游泳,你可以比在其他的条件中更快的完成比赛。我记得在Point Bonita 10K比赛中看到多次40分钟以下的获胜成绩。这是个特棒的赛程,但是要知道,这可是有10km!显然,水流流过Golden Gate的时候速度超快。
  
  Swimming across a current can require some different tactics, though. With a continuous current, like in a river, you have to aim upstream of your target. Some of your effort will go into getting you closer to the finish and some will go into fighting the current. Many races in areas affected by tides are timed to be held at either high or low tides. This way, the current comes from one side for the first half of the swim and then reverses for the second half.
  横穿水流游泳的话,就得采用一些不同的战术了。在一个连续不断的水流中,比如在河水中,你得逆流瞄准你的目标:你的力气有些是花费在向着终点,有些力气是花费在对抗水流的。很多被水流影响的比赛是按照(同一岸边)上流点或者下流点来计时的。在这种方法下,在比赛的前半段,水流从你的一边过来,后半段的时候则从另外过来。
  
  The result is that you naturally swim in an arc toward the finish, so it is best not to fight the current in this situation. Although the currents have been pretty mild during the last couple Chesapeake Bay swims, previous races had a reputation for not properly synchronizing the start with the tide change. I have heard from a few people that they completed the swim in those years by swimming from one bridge support to another in a big arc. They would be swept downstream by the current until they were near a bridge support, which would provide some shelter from the current. They would use this shelter to make their way back upstream before setting out for the next bridge support. Sort of like drafting a stationary object.
  你朝着终点自然的游泳,路线会是一个弧形,所以在这种情况下,不要和水流搏斗。尽管上几次Chesapeake Bay游泳比赛的水流相当狂野,之前的比赛则以水流的变化而闻名。我没听说过几个人,在这些年的比赛中,他们是从一个桥墩到另外一个桥墩的大弧线上完成比赛的。他们在接近桥墩之前,是一路被顺流冲着前进,桥墩就像是个庇护所。在去下一个桥墩前,他们可能会用这个庇护所逆流返程。有点像跟随一个静止的物体。
  
  
  Undertows and Riptides
  潜流和激流
  It makes sense that currents usually run parallel to shore. If they ran perpendicular to shore then they would need a source for their water or some destination. Dry land is not very good at either of these. Whenever a wave breaks, a lot of water goes into the shore. Unless this is flooding the shore, all this water is somehow returning to the ocean. There are a couple of ways it can do this: undertows and riptides.
  水流通常在两条平行线间涌向海岸。如果水流垂直冲向海岸,那么它们需要一些地方存放水或者一段距离来缓冲。干燥的土地无法起到这个作用。一旦波浪撞击,很多水进入海岸。除非淹没海岸,所有的水终将以某种方式回到大海之中——潜流或者激流。
  
  An undertow is when the water returns to the ocean underneath the incoming waves. It can be pretty strong near shore, but shouldn't really affect anyone on the surface. A riptide channels the water into a river that runs away from the shore and perpendicular to it. It moves quickly and can quickly carry a swimmer far from shore. Naturally, the way to handle it is to get out of the riptide. Riptides may move a lot faster than any of us can swim, but they aren't very wide. So don't waste your energy fighting them; swim to the side of them and head back to shore in more friendly water.
  潜流是当水返回大海的时候,在波浪下的水流。在靠近海岸的地方,潜流可能非常猛,但是不会影响在水面上的人。激流从海岸边聚起一股水流入河中。激流速度超快,可以把游泳者超快的带离海岸。自然的,处理方法是脱离激流。激流的速度比我们能游的快的太多,但是它们不是很宽。所以不要浪费任何精力去和激流做斗争;游到激流的边上,在到温柔的水中,折回海岸。
  
  Cold Water
  
  冷水
  My first open water swimming race was part of the Santa Cruz Sentinel T
Cold Water

冷水
My first open water swimming race was part of the Santa Cruz Sentinel Triathlon. The 1-mile distance and the open water didn't scare me at all, but the 59F water did. I didn't own a wetsuit, so I put lots of vaseline on my body and hoped for the best. It was cold. I didn't regain feeling in my feet until after the bike ride. I swore never to do this race again until I purchased a wetsuit.

我第一次公开水域的比赛是在Santa Cruz Sentinel铁人三项赛。1英里的公开水域对我来说根本没什么,但是59华氏度(15摄氏度)就相当吓人了。我没有湿式保暖衣(wetsuit),所以我在身上摸了很多凡士林,希望能起到最好的效果。确实是冷。我的脚一直麻到开始骑自行车后。我发毒誓,再也不参加这个比赛了,直到我买了一件湿式保暖衣。

When I first tried swimming in cold water, my body's natural reflex was not to inhale or exhale when my face was in the water. It was very difficult to get a smooth stroke when I didn't exhale until my face was out of the water. The trick was that I had to force myself to exhale when my face was still in the water. Being prepared for this before races has helped me get into a smooth stroke much more quickly.
我第一次在冷水中尝试游泳的时候,当我的脸在水中的时候,呼吸很不自然。我直到脸出水的时候才能呼气,划臂很难划的流畅。技巧是,当脸在水中的时候,我强迫自己呼气。我在比赛前要做好了这方面的准备,让我流畅划臂快多了。

Although I rarely feel I need to wear a wetsuit for warmth. I definitely have some experience with using them for that purpose. I think my 30+ minute swim-bike transition the first time I did World's Toughest Triathlon (2 mile swim in Lake Tahoe) has to go on record as one of the slowest transitions around. Despite wearing a wetsuit, neoprene cap, and regular swim cap, I was hypothermic when I finished the swim. That transition quickly moved me from 13th at the end of the swim to about last at the start of the bike. I bought a long sleeved wetsuit before doing the race the next year and was much more comfortable.
然而我很少感到自己需要湿式保暖衣来保暖。我确实有一些用湿式保暖衣实现保暖目的的经验。在世界上最艰难的铁三比赛(在Tahoe湖有2英里的游泳)中,我觉得我在游泳和自行车换项的时候花了超过30分钟,可以作为一个最慢纪录。尽管穿了湿式保暖衣,氯丁橡胶帽和泳帽,我还是在完成比赛的时候体温很低。换项迅速的让我从游泳结束时候的第十三名到开始游泳的最后一名。第二年比赛之前我买了个长袖湿式保暖衣,这个舒服多了。
In Closing
尾声
In our "very serious" pursuits to be athletes, I think that adults miss out on one of the best ways around to become comfortable in the water: playing. Go to a local pool some time and look at all the kids splashing and diving around. Listen to their laughter. They are enjoying themselves. They are also becoming very comfortable with their surroundings. On a recent trip to a beach on the Mid-Atlantic, I noticed the same sort of thing. The adults were at the edge of the surf reading or just letting the water cool their feet. The kids were jumping over the waves, body surfing, or riding boogie boards.

我们有一个“相当严肃”的嗜好:成为一名运动员。我觉得成年人丢失了在水中感觉舒服的最好办法之一:玩耍。什么时候去一下附近的游泳池,看孩子们泼水和潜水。听他们的笑声。他们自得其乐。他们也在他们的环境中感觉非常舒服。在最近去Mid-Atlantic的一次旅行中,我注意到一些这样的事情。成年人只是浪花的边上读书或者只是让水弄凉他们的脚。孩子们跳到波浪中、身体冲浪,或者踩趴板。

So the best advice I can give is to spend lots of time playing in the water. What are the different ways you can get past a breaking wave without being pulverized? How far can you ride a wave before it passes by you or you get ground into the sand? What does it feel like to swim barely past the breakers?
所以我给你的最好建议是在水中玩耍。穿过破浪波但没有被撕碎的方法有哪些?在波浪过去的时候或者你冲入沙滩之前,你能被浪送出多远?过破浪的时候感觉是怎么样的?

Maintain your respect for the water, but experiment, and by all means, remember that this is supposed to be fun!
保持对水的敬意,但是要体验。务必记住,这应该是很好玩的!



huanghelou 发表于 2019-8-27 16:33:26
贴子,看得累,是不是语音水土不服呀
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