[外文游泳文献] Freestyle Breathing Mechanics 『自由泳呼吸技术』

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小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-18 19:37:34
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 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-18 19:43:23
This week’s Speedo Tip of the Week comes from Terry Laughlin, the head coach of Total Immersion Swimming.  Laughlin is writing a series of Tips for USA Swimming, and first he offers advice on breathing mechanics that will help your freestyle.  
本周的 Speedo 小贴示是来自 Total Immersion Swimming 的主教练泰瑞·朗琳(Terry Laughlin)。朗琳为 USA Swimming 写过一系列的小贴示,这回他首次提供给各位关于呼吸技术的建议,希望对您的自由泳有所帮助。

Laughlin’s Tip:
Stanford (and USA Olympic team) coach Richard Quick once said while giving a butterfly stroke clinic: “Don’t hide your breathing mistakes by not breathing. Fix them instead.” That’s good advice not only for butterfly, but for freestyle as well. About 30 years ago, “hypoxic training” came into vogue. The idea was that by restricting breathing frequency – breathing every 5, 7 or 9 freestyle strokes – swimmers might simulate the effects of high altitude training at sea level. Researchers long ago debunked the idea that breath-holding produces any physiological adaptation, but “hypoxic” sets are still popular, in part to help swimmers adjust to the discomfort produced when you reduce breathing frequency.
朗琳的小贴示:
斯坦佛(以及美国奥林匹克游泳队)教练理查德·魁克(Richard Quick)在一次蝶泳技术研讨会上曾经说过:“别用隐匿呼吸来逃避呼吸技术的缺陷,取而代之,你要积极地提高、改正。”这不仅仅是对蝶泳学习的好建议,更使用于自由泳。大约在三十年前,“缺氧训练”成为流行。其要义是在于限制呼吸的频率——自由泳呼吸时采用五划,七划以及九划一呼吸——游泳运动员如是模拟高原环境训练。虽然很久之前,有学者披露改种屏呼吸的训练不能促成任何方式的生理条件改良,但是“缺氧训练”作为一种习惯因减缓呼吸频率所引起不适的方法,一直很受欢迎。
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-18 19:43:38
One reason for making that adjustment is the very real concern that in a sprint race, breathing can slow a swimmer down. If each breath might cost you slightly in stroke efficiency, the less of them you take, the faster you might go. Holding your breath – perhaps breathing only twice or less – in a 50 Free undoubtedly helps your speed, particularly because that race is short enough that your muscles mainly consume oxygen already in your bloodstream.  But when racing for, say, 45 seconds to over a minute, you need to get fresh oxygen to your muscles. Because of this, holding your breath could restrict your ability to finish such races strongly. The ideal would be to be able to breathe as often as you want, without sacrificing any speed.
习惯或者适应这种因屏息而引起的不适的其中一个很现实的原因,就是,在冲刺竞赛中呼吸在某种程度上减缓了竞技者的速度。如果每次呼吸都能在你前进中起到微弱的阻碍划臂效率的作用,那么呼吸次数越少,你的速度就能更快。屏息——或许呼吸一到两次——在五十米自由泳竞赛中,无疑能助你提高速度,特别是因为在五十米这样的短程冲刺竞赛中,你的肌肉组织主要消耗的是含在你血液中的氧。但是如果竞赛时间超过,比如说,四十五秒或者超过一分种的话,你需要为你的肌肉组织补充新鲜氧气。正因如此,屏息会限制你在中长距离竞赛中的发挥。最为理想的状态就是,当你身体需要氧气时呼吸,且在不减速的状况下。

The key to maximizing both air and speed is to breathe as seamlessly as possible. Let’s start with the mechanics of getting air into your lungs:
同时汲取最大量氧气、保持最高速度的要义就是尽可能地天衣无缝般呼吸。现在,让我们开始了解向肺部填充氧气的技术吧:
· Inhale through your mouth; exhale through your mouth 70% and nose 30%. Are these figures exact? No, just keep enough air pressure coming from your nose to keep the water out.
· 以口吸气;呼气时,口呼百分之七十,鼻呼百分之三十。量衡要如此精确吗?不一定,你要做的仅仅是保证从鼻腔释放足够量的气体以防止水溺入。
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-18 19:43:52
· Never hold your breath – even if you’ll swim three to five strokes between breaths. Begin exhaling as soon as you finish inhaling -- just exhale in a more controlled way if you’ll take more strokes before your next breath.
· 不要屏息、憋气——即便你要采用每五划一呼吸的方案。吸气结束后马上开始呼气——尽量控制呼气的的量和速度,如果你想在两次吸气间多划几下的话。

· Exhale the final 20% of air more forcefully than the first 80%. This should make the inhale almost effortless by creating a vacuum in your lungs. It also helps clear the water away from your mouth for the next breath. Also, the force of your exhale should be proportionate to your effort. The next time you swim a descending set, experiment with consciously adding some force to your exhale as you go faster.
· 在呼出最后的百分之二十气的时候尽量较呼前百分之八十时用力。这样,你吸气时就会因你的肺部的真空而更加轻松。这样,也能帮助你吹开嘴边的水,防止其在呼吸时流入口中。另外,你呼气的力度要与你做功的程度成正比。下次,当你做变速训练时,尝试在加速时尽量正大呼气的力度。

The second key to breathing with high frequency and high efficiency lies in how you roll to the side to take that breath. Poor breathing mechanics can increase drag and reduce the effectiveness of your stroke during the breath. Here are several ways to remain efficient while breathing:
呼吸时保持高频率以及高效率的第二要义,取决于你如何转体至呼吸侧。不好的呼吸技术能增加阻力、减弱呼吸时的划臂效力。以下介绍几种保持呼吸时划臂效力的方法:
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-18 19:44:16
1. Roll your whole body to the air. Rather than breathing with a head turn – which is awkward and can cause muscle tension – think of rolling your body to the air…as if you were going to breathe with your belly button. This will also help to encourage core-body rotation, which is the source of your stroking power.
1. 大幅度转身接触空气。不要用转头的方法呼吸——这样感觉很奇怪,并且能引起肌肉僵硬——而是设想把整个体侧转出水面,如同要用肚脐眼呼吸一般。这样做更有意于增强刚体滚动——这也是划臂力量的来源。

2. Stay balanced as you roll to the air. Lifting your head as you breathe will cause your hips and legs to sink, increasing drag and slowing you down. Consciously keep the crown of your head and forehead pressed to the surface as you roll to breathe.
2. 大幅转体时注意保持平衡。抬头呼吸会让你的臀部以及腿部下沉,增加前进的阻力,使你减速。有意识地保持你的头顶以及前额在转体时下压(译者注:下压不是要用力压下去,而是尽量保持头部的一小部分——脸颊以及太阳穴在水中)。

3. Stay aligned as you roll to the air. Picture a line that runs from your toes, along your spine and out the top of your head as a laser beam. Keep that laser cutting straight ahead through the water as you breathe – or think of slicing through the water like an arrow through the air, at all times but especially while breathing.
3. 转体过程中保持身体的直线位置。设想有一道激光穿过你的脚尖、脊椎以及头顶。保持这道激光正直地切水至对面池壁——又或者幻想自己如一直离弦箭般滑水而过,全程如是,尤其是在呼吸的时候。
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-18 19:44:29
4. Stay tall as you roll to the air. Many swimmers lose the front end of their stroke on each breath. During each breath, focus on keeping the opposite hand stretched forward – with fingertips angled down to hold an “armful of water” – for just a moment longer during the breath.  This timing will help connect that arm stroke to the powerful rotation of your body in the other direction following the breath.
4. 转体时尽量拉长身体。大多数游泳运动员在呼吸时都忽略了前端延展的动作。每次呼吸时,注意保持另一侧的手臂尽量向前延展——手指略微弯曲,如同抓住“一手掌水”一般——仅在呼吸时保持这种状态。这样做可更好地把握在此次呼吸结束后,划臂与有力转体之间的衔接的时机。

5. Drive the top hip down. After breathing, focus on driving that hip (i.e. the right hip after a right side breath and vice versa) down strongly. That will help you get all the power out of the extra rotation that occurs when you roll to breathe. If you do all of the above right, you can make each breath an asset to your stroke, not an interruption.
5. 转髋入水。呼吸结束后(译者按:吸气结束后),注意将呼吸侧髋(就是说,右侧呼吸则为右侧髋,反之侧为左侧髋)用力转入水中。这样做能让你得到呼吸转体时的额外能量。如果你能够正确地完成以上所有动作,你则可以使你的呼吸变成你划臂的一部分,而不是划臂动作的插入动作。(译者注:融呼吸与划臂为一整体。)
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