[外文游泳文献] Underwater Dolphin Kick 『水下蝶泳腿 Ⅱ』

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小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-11 15:07:36
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This week’s Speedo Tip of the Week was submitted by Ray Mitchell, head coach of the Terrapin Swim Club, who offers some advice on developing your underwater dolphin kick.
本周的Speedo小贴示是由Terrapin游泳俱乐部的主教练雷·米切尔(Ray Mitchell)提供的,他为大家带来的提高水下蝶泳腿的建议。

Mitchell’s Tip:
Here at the Terrapins, we emphasize this skill on a daily basis in our National and Pre-National training groups. At our age group level, this skill is highlighted as an important tool for future success. Basically everyone in our program works to some degree on improving their underwater kicking technique. This emphasis really helped current World Record Holder Natalie Coughlin develop her backstroke to the world-class level. It wasn’t until she really focused on and improved this skill that her backstroke caught fire. Much of what we now apply to the development of this skill came from Natalie’s training from age 14-17.
米切尔(Mitchell)的建议:
在Terrapin俱乐部,我们每天都对我们的国家级或者准国家级别的运动员做加强这种技巧的训练。在我们的低龄组运动员中,这种技巧是一种能提高他们水平的重要手段。基本上,我们的每位运动员都采用不同程度的训练来提高他们的水下蝶泳腿技术。这种强化训练让我们的世界纪录保持者纳塔丽·寇琳(Natalie Coughlin)把她的仰泳成绩提升到国际级水平。直到纳塔丽·寇琳(Natalie Coughlin)真正重视提高她的水下蝶泳腿技术的时候,她的仰泳技术才得到飞跃。我们现在采用的训练方法就是从纳塔丽(Natalie)14至17岁时的训练内容。

To assess your potential in underwater dolphin kicking, there are a few basics to look for. First, you must maintain a superb streamline position. Reducing resistance and drag underwater with proper streamlining is a must. You cannot move forward in developing this skill unless you master streamlining. The next area to look at would be ankle flexibility (plantar flexion), core body strength and quadriceps / hamstring power – all-important components to effective dolphin kicking. If your dolphin kick is weak due to any of the above factors, then you must consider utilizing less of this skill (shorter distances off walls – shorter time underwater) or spend the time trying to strengthen your dolphin kick capabilities. In the end, you and your coach will have to decide how much of this skill is appropriate for you based on your physical make-up. In Natalie’s case, she not only has all the physical tools but also has the psychological determination to train this skill better and tougher than most.
有一些基本的方法可以测试你的水下蝶泳腿的潜力。首先,你必须要做到很漂亮的流线体位。从减少水带来的阻力的角度来讲,保持合理的流线体位是必须要做到的。如果你做不到很到位的流线体位的话,你就不可能提高你的水下蝶泳腿水平。第二个方面,就是你的脚踝的灵活度(足关节屈曲),腰腹力量以及四头肌/跟腱的力量——这些都是有效踢水下蝶泳腿的重要组成元素。如果以上点中有你的弱项的话,那么你还是(在现状态下)少使用水下蝶泳腿技术(你可以所短登壁后的踢腿距离——减少在水下的时间),或者花时间针对蝶泳腿的须求做力量训练。最后,你要和你的教练要根据你的身体条件设计一款适合你的水下蝶泳腿方案。就纳塔丽(Natalie)而言,她不仅有身体条件,而且她更有追求更好更强的技术的决心。

Here are a few sets and concepts that we have used at the Terrapins to train this skill:
以下是一些我们在Terrapins俱乐部采用的一些训练方法和观念:

Age Group Level – Sets of 25s, increasing the number of kicks underwater on each 25; holding the determined number of kicks underwater off each wall in training sets.
低龄运动员水平——25米池训练,尝试着在每次的25米潜游中增加踢腿的次数,在之后的训练中尽量保持最多次数的踢腿。

Senior Level – A. Use of monofins - example: 10x100m dolphin kick repeats on 1:30-1:40, going 25 under / 25 up, and on repeats #5 and #10 25 under / 25 up then 50 under.
成熟运动员水平(也就是可以参赛的年龄段)
·A 使用一体脚蹼——例如:每一分三十至四十秒,穿戴脚蹼完成100米蝶泳腿(如此重复十次):25次水下蝶泳腿、25次正常蝶泳腿,每五次或者十次转换动作。回程做50次连续的水下蝶泳腿。

B. 20x25y on :30 underwater dolphin kicking – time these on a watch to enhance quality of effort.
·B 20x25码 水下三十下蝶泳腿——计时,然后(在保持速度的前提下)尽量增加每次踢腿的效力。

C. 20x50y on :50, odds 15m kick underwater, then swim through turn and entire second 25 under on the way back; evens 25 kick under surface, one stroke away from wall turn and hold 15m kick underwater off turn. This requires tremendous discipline and breath control.
·C 前25码,出发时做一个水下15米小幅度蝶泳腿的滑行,然后游完剩下的十米,转身后一口气踢水下25码;再完成25米的回程匀速蝶泳腿后,在距壁一划远的地方开始转身,然后接一次水下15码的小幅度蝶泳腿滑行。这项练习对耐力和憋气的要求极为大。

D. 20-40 x 15m on :30, 15m kick under on watch; drill or sprint swim back to wall.
·D 20x15米或者40x15米三十米一单元,前十五米计时潜游,然后或继续踢或直接游到对面。

E. Vertical shooters off bottom – hold streamline position and bounce off bottom of pool and dolphin kick on way up to surface at max effort.
·E 垂直触低弹射——保持流线体位,然后(在深度合适的水域中)站在从池底向水面垂直做蝶泳腿弹跳,用最大的力量。

One thing we never do is underwater kicking for distance (see how far you can go or how many laps you can make underwater). This is very unsafe and does very little to enhance the power aspect of your underwater kicking. Remember you only get 15m off each wall to utilize this skill, so power and speed are the goals. So be safe and always practice your underwater skills under the direct supervision of your coach.
我们从未做过的就是一口气长距离水下蝶泳腿训练(就是看运动员在不浮出水面呼吸的情况下,能游多远或者几圈)。这种方法一是不安全,再有就是不怎么见效。记住,你只需要做十五米的水下蝶泳腿,所以力度和速度才是我们所追求的。也就是说,要在保证安全的前提下在你的教练的监督下进行训练。

A few comparisons to one of the best underwater dolphin kickers in the world - listed below are some of the more notable underwater kicking sets accomplished by Natalie in the past five years:
以下罗列的是未经比照的一位世界顶尖的水下蝶泳腿高手纳塔丽(Natalie)在过去几年中的成绩:

50y dolphin kick underwater from a push – 24.0 seconds.
登壁后水下五十米蝶泳腿——24秒

15m kick underwater to head – 6.8 seconds (her goal has been 6.0 for 15m). 10x200y on 2:30 back, going 25 underwater dolphin kick / 25back swim averaged 2:07+ (this was done in warm-up prior to competing).
15米水下蝶泳腿至出水——6.8秒(她的目标是15米六秒中)。在两个半小时内完成10x200码仰泳,每水下25米蝶泳腿后25米仰泳合起来(就是每五十米登壁前完成一半水下蝶泳腿,一半仰泳)这样的每200码的平均成绩为两分钟零七秒以上(这仅仅是赛前热身)。

Dive 25 underwater, hand touch 10.2.
25米潜泳,触壁 10秒2

800m kick with 15m underwater off each wall – 11:35
八百米踢仰泳腿,每登壁后前15米为水下蝶泳腿 十一分三十五秒

Perhaps the most memorable utilization of this skill by Natalie that I remember was at the Kerr-McGee Pro-AM 200 free final, when Natalie was racing Ashley Tappin. Tappin had a lead into the last turn (175), and Natalie came off the wall and stayed under 15m to go 1:46 low. It was amazing to see this type of ability at the end of a race. Good luck with your efforts to improve your underwater kicking skills!
或许最为让我记忆犹新的一次纳塔丽(Natalie)使用水下蝶泳腿技术是在科麦奇全美职业公开赛的200米自由泳决赛时纳塔丽(Natalie)对阵阿什丽·塔品(Ashley Tappin)。塔品(Tappin)在最后一次转身前还处于领先位置(175米位置——短池),纳塔丽(Natalie)转身登壁后一次15米的水下蝶泳腿帮助她取得了不到1:46的成绩。能在比赛临近尾声时看到这么精彩的绝活,的确很赏心悦目。祝你在练习中取得好的成绩。
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-11 15:08:12
A More Effective Body Dolphin 『更有效的蝶泳腿』
In this week’s Speedo Tip of the Week, Terry Laughlin, head coach of Total Immersion Swimming and the Hawks Swimming Association in New Paltz, N.Y., answers a question from a reader concerning butterfly. Try Laughlin’s drills for a more effective body dolphin.
本周的 Speedo 小贴示是一篇由Total Immersion Swimming 以及纽约州纽袍泽市群鹰游泳协会(Hawks Swimming Association)的主教练泰瑞·朗琳(Terry Laughlin)回复以为热爱蝶泳的爱好者的信。试试朗琳提供的为踢更有效蝶泳腿的训练吧。

Kyra wrote: I’ve been working on my butterfly, but I still have problems with my hips sinking. Can you tell me how to get my butt to break the surface?
吉拉写信问道:我一直在练习蝶泳,但是我仍然有臀部一直下沉的问题。您能否教我如何让屁股破水而出呢?

Last September, when we began coaching the Hawks swim team, most of the younger swimmers (and many of those older) were swimming butterfly with a big, splashy kick that burned lots of energy but left their hips dragging.
去年九月份,当我们开始指教群鹰俱乐部时,我们发现很多小运动员(也有很大一部分年纪较长的运动员)在游蝶泳的时候,总是花很大的力气去将蝶泳腿踢得幅度大、且水花四溅,但是他们的臀部还是始终被拖在水里。

We started by teaching them NOT to kick – at least in the way most people interpret the term. We also pointed out that dolphin-kicking is a misnomer. Dolphins DON'T kick.
我们开始让他们不踢腿——至少绝大部分人是这么解读这条术语的。我们同时指出,所谓的海豚式踢腿“Dolphin-Kicking”是一条错误的用词。因为海豚从不踢(腿)。

Our first step was to have them swim short repeats (three to five strokes) of whole-stroke butterfly without kicking, letting the legs simply follow the movement of the core-body – and particularly to do this without noise or splash. Immediately, their hips were reaching the surface without “trying.”
我们的下一个步骤是让我们的运动员做完整蝶泳动作的小动作周期练习(三到五次完整蝶泳动作为一训练组,就是 one repeat),让腿自然地跟随腰腹着运动——并特别要求,不要有声音、不要有水花。立杆见影地,他们的屁屁不费劲儿地接触到了水面。

Once we eliminated what was inhibiting their hips, then we focused on teaching them to use the core and synchronize it with the whole body with these steps:
一旦我们消除了那些滞留臀部运动的因素,我们则转而致力于教运动员们如何使用腰腹,以及如何使腰腹的运动与整个身体的运动同步。我们通过如下步骤:

Vertical Body Dolphin – In a vertical position, with your chin at the surface and keeping your body as “tall” and straight as you can, cross your arms over your chest and dolphin at a steady rate. Count the number you can execute in 10 seconds, aiming to do more than 20. You’ll learn that the more “tone” you maintain in your core, the more dolphins you can complete. Remember the feeling of initiating the movement from your midsection and having your legs react to that. If you want to raise the bar, try this with your arms extended overhead.
垂直蝶泳腿——身体垂直于水平面,置你的下巴恰好于水面上,保持身体尽量上下延展、伸长,双手交叉于胸前,蝶腿时保持平稳的节奏。数数你在十秒钟之内能踢多少下,你的目标应该是二十下以上。你会发现,你分腹肌越是“结实”,你踢腿的次数就越多。记住,你的发力点在于身体的中间部分(译者注:即腰!),你的腿是随动的。如果想提升身体出水的高度,可以试着将双手上举过头顶。

Horizontal Body Dolphin – Float face-down with arms at your sides and begin a relaxed rocking motion by rhythmically pulsing your chest down and forward. Each chest pulse should lift your hips to the surface. Don't use your thigh muscles at all. Keep your legs long and supple. Breathe every four to eight pulses at first, later every two to three pulses. When you breathe, keep your chin in the water and eyes looking down. Maintain your pulsing rhythm through each breath. If you’re not getting propulsion, it can be helpful to use a pair of fins. Let the fin blade pick up signals from your core-body movements. That will help you understand how your legs should similarly take their cue from the core in the whole stroke.
水平蝶泳腿——俯卧浮于水面,双臂置于体侧,在开始蝶动时,放松地、有节奏地向下以及向前破动你的胸部。不要使用你的大腿肌肉。保持你的腿伸展、柔韧。开始时,每四到八次蝶动一呼吸,之后可以采用每两或三次一呼吸。呼吸时,保持你的下巴浸于水中,眼睛向下看。呼吸的同时要注意保持身体蝶动的节奏。如果你的蝶动没什么前进动力的话,使用脚蹼会对你有帮助的。用脚蹼的蹼面传动源自腰部的身体蝶动信号。这样会帮助你体会如何使用你的双腿,类似地迎合源自你腰腹的蝶动力量。

Hand-Lead Body Dolphin – When you feel a relaxed rhythm in the exercise above, extend your arms forward. Keep your arms at shoulder width, and focus on feeling your fingertips move toward the far wall with each pulse. Because you’ve lengthened the “lever” forward of your chest by extending your arms, you’ll feel more thigh muscle in your dolphin, but avoid splash by keeping your feet in the water. Once you feel a natural rhythm, count the number of pulses per length. Try for 15 to 20 (10 to 15 with fins) pulses per 25. Breathe every two to three pulses and maintain your core-body rhythm through each breath.
双手牵引式蝶泳腿——当你做如上练习时感觉到放松且有节奏感,你可以尝试着向前延伸你的双手。双臂与肩同宽,注意体会每次蝶动时手指尖指向远方池壁滑水的感觉。因为你通过向前延展双臂增加了“杠杆”的长度,你在蝶动时会感觉你的打腿肌肉在做功,这时,你要尽量保持双脚浸于水中以避免溅起水花。一旦你感觉到放松且有节奏,试着数数每二十五米的蝶动次数。试着做到每二十五米 15 到 20 次(带脚蹼的话,达到 10 到 15 次)。每两到三次蝶动呼吸一次,呼吸是要保持腰腹发力的节奏。

Add Strokes – Just add one at first. Start with two pulses as above, putting an extra emphasis on the second. Use that more emphatic pulse to initiate one full stroke (breathe or not as you feel most comfortable), then return immediately to two more pulses. Then stop. Repeat this sequence several times, trying to feel as if your stroke integrates smoothly with the pulsing rhythm. Each downward pulse of your chest should raise your hips above the surface and the same should happen during the single stroke. If you feel that, then try a full 25, alternating two pulses with one stroke all the way.
添加划臂动作——开始是先添加一次划臂。出发后做两次双手牵引式蝶泳腿,第二次力量要足,用第二次蝶泳腿的力量发力做一次完整的蝶泳动作(可以呼吸,也可以不呼吸,你自己觉得怎么舒服就怎么做),然后紧接着做两次双手牵引式蝶泳腿。然后停下。如此反复若干周期(译者注:每周期共五次蝶泳腿,第二次加力,第三次为完整蝶泳动作,第一、四、五次为放松的手臂牵引式蝶腿),试着让你的划臂动作和你的身体蝶动完全地、平稳地整合到一起。每次你的下巴的向下运动都会把你的屁屁送出水面,做每个完整的蝶泳动作时也是一样。如果你能体会到了,就试着做二十五米的蝶泳腿训练,每两次蝶腿为一组,每组第二次蝶腿做完整蝶泳动作。

Try Whole Stroke – After practicing each activity above for five to ten minutes, experiment with several short repeats of whole-stroke swimming. Each time you return to whole-stroke repeats, strive for a heightened sense of including rhythmic chest-pulsing as the foundation of your stroke. After each stroke, gravity and your pulsing rhythm should drive your chest well below the surface – and your hips above it.
尝试完整蝶泳动作——在用五到十分钟时间做以上每个训练项目后,可以开始试做几次短周期的完整动作练习。在每组完整动作训练开始前,你要对自己强调有节奏的胸部蝶动是每次完整动作的基础。每次完整蝶泳动作结束后(译者注:就是移臂入水开始),引力和蝶动的节奏会引领你的胸部潜至水面以下——这是,你的屁屁就在水面以上了
 楼主| 小臭贝 发表于 2011-2-11 15:08:46
This week’s Speedo Tip of the Week comes from Glenn Mills, 1980 Olympian and head of GoSwim.tv, producers of numerous technique DVDs starring world-class swimmers.  Mills offers a challenging drill to improve your dolphin kick.
本周的 Speedo 小贴示是由1980年奥运游泳选手、GoSwim.tv主管、多部世界级游泳健将参与演示的游泳专业教学录像的制作人葛林·米尔斯提供的。米尔斯提供了一些有助于您提高蝶泳腿的具有挑战性的训练内容。

Mills’ Tip:
Jump in the deep end and try this drill. Just make sure you don't overextend yourself by starting with the macho challenge in Step No. 4. You'll see what happens if you do.
米尔斯的贴示:
跳进深水区然后试试做这个训练。记得在迎接第四步训练中的强悍挑战时不要过分伸展自己的身体。你要不信的话,试试就明白了。

Why Do It:
This is a great drill for teaching you how to harness the power in your entire body. You'll quickly realize that if you simply use your legs to keep your head above water, you'll need gills.
为什么要做:
这是一项很不错的训练,能教你如何控制以及运用整个身体的力量。你会很快地意识到,如果仅凭借双腿的力量去保持你的头部高出水面的话,你将需要鳃的。(译者注:言下之意,仅用双腿是不可能保持头部高出水面、自如呼吸的。)

How To Do It:
1.  Position yourself vertically in the deep end of the pool and start dolphin kicking.  As you do this, try to stay as vertical as possible.  Don’t lean forward or backward, but keep your legs under you. You may find that your legs alternate from taking a few kicks behind your body to taking a few kicks in front of your body, but the goal should be to have them directly underneath you.  If this is too challenging, and you keep sinking, you can start by wearing a flotation belt or by hugging a kickboard or pull buoy to your chest. Once you can do four to five reps of 30 to 45 seconds each, with a bit of rest between each rep, you’re ready for more of a challenge.
如何做:
1. 在泳池深水区做垂直蝶泳腿。踢蝶泳腿时要注意,尽量保持身体与水平面垂直。不要向前或者向后倾斜,而是要保证你的退正在身体的下面。你有可能发觉,你在踢腿的时候,你的退靠提前踢几下,然后又靠体后踢几下(译者按:这样是不行的,因为),你的目标是要保持退在身体的正下方(译者注:而非偏前、偏后,又或者几前几后的调整)。如果这个动作对你来说难度太大、你在一直下沉的话,你可以系一条浮力腰带(译者注:泡沫制,多数人在做水中漫步是使用。)或者在胸前抱一块浮板,又或者可以在胸前抱一个划臂用浮力泡沫块。一旦你能完成四到五组,每组三十至四十五秒的垂直蝶泳腿——每组间可做短暂休息,你就可以迎接更高难度训练的挑战了。

2.  Simply cross your arms across your chest and focus on staying perfectly vertical as you dolphin kick.  
2. 在做垂直蝶泳腿是,双臂于胸前交叉。(译者注:Michael Phelps 的 SwimFast Butterfly 中有此项训练。)

3.  Now try lifting your fingertips out of the water. Once you can do that easily, then hold your palms out, then your forearms.
3. 现在(译者按:在可以轻松完成第二步训练项目时)你可以开始试着把手指尖露出水面(译者注:双手自然上举,无须交叉。)。如果你能很轻松地做到了,你就可以试着让你的手掌露出水面,然后是小臂。(译者按:以上三种出水训练,都是基于熟练晚场垂直蝶泳腿的前提下的;小臂出水不需要保持手肘正好与水平面相切。)

4.  Only when you really can lift your arms out, and stay fairly vertical, should you even THINK ABOUT an extra challenge, which is to grab a weight and hold it to your chest while kicking.   When you do, make it a light weight to start.   If you use too much too soon, you may find that you start to lean back in the water. Leaning gives you an extra bit of leverage from your back, and an extra bit of buoyancy from leaning on your lungs.
4. 只有当你能在踢垂直蝶泳腿的时候能将整条胳膊抬出水面,并且能保持身体垂直的姿势的时候,你可以尝试构想一下更进一步的挑战——负重,即双手抓重物置于胸前,踢垂直蝶泳腿。开始做的时候,负重一定要轻。如果开始的时候就使用大砝码重物,你就会发现(译者按:在踢蝶泳腿时)你的身体会后顷。因为后顷时,你的背能为你提供额外的上举力量,你的肺也会在你后顷时提供额外的浮力。

This subtle, improper move allows you to do the drill for a longer period of time, but you’re not doing it absolutely correctly. As a result, you can actually mistrain your muscles, so it’s not a good idea. If you notice this starting to occur, drop the weight and go back to simply holding your hands out of the water. This is plenty tough.  Even though this drill is all about RAW, SCREAMING INTENSITY, you should still focus on proper technique.
这个细小的、不规范的动作能让你在做这项训练(译者注:即负重蝶腿训练)更久些,但是,你做的不是正确的训练动作。这样做的结果是,你实际上在错误训练你的肌肉(译者注:即未能达到训练效果,白练了。),所以说,这可不是个好的主意。如果你发现这种情况出现,一定要放弃重物,重新回到手出水的垂直蝶泳腿训练阶段。负重垂直蝶腿训练相当难。尽管这项训练会让你觉得苦痛交加、不堪忍受,但,你还是要注意保持技术动作的规范。

How to Do It Really Well (The Fine Points):
1.  Pay special attention to finishing your kick with your toes pointed. Keep your legs flexible and make your movements fluid and continuous throughout all phases of the kick.
如何能将训练科目做的很好(加分点):
1. 特别注意每次前踢完成时,你的脚尖应是相对的。保持你双腿的弹性,尽量做到在整组垂直蝶腿训练是,你的动作连贯、连续。

2. As you power your feet forward, don't force them to always be directly touching each other. They have to stay on the same plane, and they MUST move in perfect unison to be legal, but they are allowed to be a bit apart.
2. 当前踢时,不要刻意让你的双脚直接碰到一起。虽说你要保持你的双脚踢动等幅度、同频率,但是你可以让他们之间保持一点距离(译者按:不要过分亲昵。)。

3. Training your body by using a bit of resistance is a great way to learn an efficient, useful technique. This drill demands that you use your entire body and that you initiate your kick from the core of the body, rather than from your knees and feet.  The goal should never be MORE WEIGHT, or even ANY WEIGHT. The goal is to maintain PERFECT FORM, no matter how little or how much weight you use.
3. 在训练中使用微量阻力,是一种极佳的学习一种高效、有用的技术的途经。(译者按:以上介绍的)训练要求你用你的整个身体,并且用你的身来发力,而不是用你的腿或者脚。训练的目的不是为了承受更大的重量,或者说是承担任何程度的重量。这项训练的目的是为了让你保持最佳的身体位置、蝶腿姿势,无论你是否负重,或者负重多少。
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